Chronology One

Cycles




By James Conway from a chapter of my yet to be published book 
_Catastrophics & Chronology_ 


The Bible is history, but a modern history of it can not be written if 
the contemporary nation kings in it are wrongfully designated. Chronology 
is essential so the first order of business must be the proper chronology 
of the Bible itself. 


Today's Bible chronology: 

Israel chronology BCE


  2140   Abraham           100
  2040   Isaac              60
  1980   Jacob             100
  1880   Joseph            430        Samaritan Chronicle
  1450   Moses (80)
                                      1530   Moses              120
  1440   Exodus             40        1410   Joshua              28
                                      1382   Interregnum         18
  1400   Othniel            40        1364   Cushan               8
                                      1356   Nathanel             9
  1360   Ehud               80        1347   Jehud               18
                                      1329   Gomer               20
  1280   Shamgar             1        1309   Parak               30
                                      1279   Jabin               20
  1279   Deborah            40        1259   Deborah             23 20
                                      1236   Midianites           7
  1239   Gideon             40        1229   Gideon              30


As can be seen the above solution to the Judges era is that the periods 
of occupation were contemporary with the Judges lengths of rule.


  1199   Abimelech           3
  1196   Tola               23
  1173   Jair               22        1169   Ammonites           18
  1151   Jephthath           6
  1145   Izban               7        1145   Abhoda               9
  1138   Elon               10        1136   Ebhen Lel           28
  1128   Abdon               8
  1120   Samson             20
  1100   Eli                40        1108   Anitel              40
  1080   Interregnum        20        1068   SMSM
  1060   Samuel             40
  1020   Saul               40
   999   Ishbosheth          2
   997   David              33
   964   Solomon            40

   928   Rehoboam           17         928   Jehoboam            22
   911   Abia                3         906   Nadab                2
   908   Asa                41         904   Baasha              24
   867   Jehoshaphat        25         880   Elah                 2
   842   Joram               8         878   Omri                12
   834   Ahaziah             1         866   Ahab                22
   833   Athaliah            2         844   Ahaziah              2
   831   Joash              40         842   Joram               12
   791   Amaziah            29         830   Jehu                28
   762   Uzziah             52         802   Joahaz              17
                                       785   Joash               16
   747   Jotham             16         769   Jeroboam II         41
   731   Ahaz               16         728   Zachariah + Shallum
   715   Hezekiah           29               Menahem             10
   686   Manasseh           55         718   Pekahiah             2
   631   Amon                2         716   Pekah               20
   629   Josiah             31         696   Hoshea               9
   598   Jehoahaz  3 M 10 d            687   Ten tribes dispersed
         Jehoiakim          11
   587   Jehoiachin  3 months
         Zedechiah          11
   576   First of Cyrus II 246
   330   Alexander the Great


There are several problems after the first solution put us on a sound 
standing at the end of Gideon (1199 BCE). There are too many years of 
rule given for the period between Eli and Solomon's 4th year and an 
internal problem exists because of the two different stories of Ahab's 
death. Jehu killed both Ahab and Ahaziah in the same year, which is not 
the story used for Bible chronology. The period is also too short for the 
lengths of rule given because the end of Uzziah was not 710 BCE. 
Moreover, the end of Israel kings did not occur in the reign of Sargon II 
in 722 BCE nor during the reign of Hezekiah. 



Proofs:  KJH Biblical chronology

Part one


Below is the usual Biblical chronology given in the Bible with some 
amendments. The Bible uses an artificial system based on 40 year 
generations. The 400 years between Jacob's 130 years of life to when 
Moses was 80 years old is a case in point as is the 480 years between the 
exodus out of Egypt and the 4th year of Solomon. These systems are not 
exact year date systems. However, they do represent a system of overall 
exactness from point to point. There are exactly 400 years from Jacob to 
Moses from the points given, but the 4th year of Solomon is itself an 
artificial construct derived by giving 40 years as the length for his 
reign. Most interesting tho is the fact that the dynasty marked by 
Josephus as being a Hebrew dynasty (Manetho's 15th Eygptian dynasty) that 
ruled Egypt for about 250 years fits well within that system between the 
end of the 12th dynasty and the birth of Moses (1530 BCE). The period 
between the exodus to the building of the first Temple is 480 years when 
the periods of enslavement are counted as concurrent to the reigns of the 
judges. The separate Samaritan chronicle confirms the passage of the 
first three centuries after the exodus. Other small differences are that 
the 8 year reign of Abdon was contemporary with Elon and that Abdon 
died later in the same year as Elon, that Eli reigned only thirty years, 
that the interregnum between Eli and Samuel's victory was only 18 years 
and not twenty, and Saul reigned 22 years and not 40. The last is 
confirmed by the fact that David received the whole kingdom after only 
seven and a half years passed from the time of Samuel's death. Samuel 
died at the age of 85 after Saul had reigned 18 years, which fits a reign 
of 30 years for Eli since Samuel was 12 years old at that time. Saul's 
son ruled 2 years after Saul only leaving five and one half years as 
possible additional years for Saul's reign. The number 22 is often given 
for the missing part of the passage in Josephus, which is used to justify 
a reign length of 40 years (18+22) for Saul. However, the usual formula 
is not used as it was important to note when Samuel died to know the 
correct passage of time. If 22 is the correct number in the passage as 
the heritage of giving Saul 40 years suggests, then 22 is not additional 
years after Samuel's death, but the total number of years of Saul's 
reign. 


Israel chronology BCE


  2140   Abraham           100
  2040   Isaac              60
  1980   Jacob             130
  1850   Israel            400        Samaritan Chronicle
  1450   Moses (80)
                                      1530   Moses              120
  1440   Exodus             40        1410   Joshua              28
                                      1382   Interregnum         18
  1400   Othniel            40        1364   Cushan               8
                                      1356   Nathanel             9
  1360   Ehud               80        1347   Jehud               18
                                      1329   Gomer               20
  1280   Shamgar             1        1309   Parak               30
                                      1279   Jabin               20
  1279   Deborah            40        1259   Deborah             23 20
                                      1236   Midianites           7
  1239   Gideon             40        1229   Gideon              30

  1199   Abimelech           3
  1196   Tola               23
  1173   Jair               22        1169   Ammonites           18
  1151   Jephthath           6
  1145   Izban               7        1145   Abhoda               9
  1138   Elon               10        1136   Ebhen Lel           28
  1136   Abdon               8        
  1128   Samson             20
  1108   Eli                30  40    1108   Anitel              40
  1078   Interregnum        18  20    1068   SMSM
  1060   Samuel             37  40
  1023   Saul               22  40
  1001   Ishbosheth          2
   999   David              33
   966   Solomon            38  40


Part two


There are four chronological pillars used in Bible chronology after 
Solomon:  The fifth year of Rehoboam (924 BCE), era of Nabonassar 
(747 BCE), the first year of Cyrus (II) the Great (576 BCE), and the year 
Alexander (III) the Great conquered Persia (330 BCE). Major changes are 
required in Kings II because of an internal chronological problem in the 
Bible, which is responsible for the creation of twin Ahaziahs, Jorams, 
and Jezebels (Athaliah) - one real and one not. The cause of such an 
outcome is Ahab's two deaths, which are both written into the story of 
the old testament as Velikovsky pointed out. One tradition gave the death 
of Ahab as occurring after the battle of Ramoth-gilead while the other 
gave that he survived and reigned a significant period of time after that 
battle. The chronology of the Bible uses the story line that Ahab died at 
the battle. This is wrong and the consequences are that the real 
characters and events become mirrored and occur twice. In order to 
accomplish this both Ahab and Jehoshaphat required fictitious successors 
named Ahaziah and Joram in opposite order relative to the other. To tie 
up both ends Ahaziah and Jezebel had to die twice. This could only be 
accomplished by creating a fictitious Ahaziah of Israel and Athaliah of 
Jerusalem. Interesting consequences with these rearrangements are that 
the real Joram with a reign of 12 years is given to be an Israel king 
when he is a king of Jerusalem and only rules after the death of Ahaziah 
king of Judah who reigned for 8 years and was a son of Ahab. Ahaziah son 
of Ahab married the daughter of Jehoshaphat and became king of Jerusalem 
after all of the sons of Jehoshaphat were killed in the wars that 
Jehoshaphat fought. Another point of the same kind of divergence is that 
Joash king of Jerusalem with a reign of 40 years is also Joash son of 
Jehu who took Jerusalem in the 14th year of Amaziah. Joash son of Jehu 
ruled both Samaria and Jerusalem as did his son Uzziah also known as 
Azariah. Yet the greatest fiction in Bible chronology is the demise of 
Israel in the reign of Hezekiah. Conventional chronology places the sack 
of Samaria by Sargon II (722 BCE) as the functional date of this event. 
The transference of Israel out of history in either the 8th or 7th 
century BCE are fictions for Joahaz came to rule during the start of the 
2nd year of the siege of Samaria by Shalmaneser and the eighth year of 
Joash II son of Joahaz king of Israel was the 14th sole year of Hezekiah 
(687 BCE). The kingdom of Israel did experience a number of dispersions; 
in the 8th year of Tiglath-pileser III (722 BCE), at the end of 6th year 
of the regency of Hezekiah (710 BCE) after the sack of Samaria by 
Shalmaneser (that is used by the Bible as an impossible marker for the 
death of king Uzziah), an actual dispersal during the reign of Hezekiah 
(where the end of Israel's ten tribes were falsely placed at 687 BCE), 
and the final one at the end of the reign of Hoshea where the end of 
Israel as a nation was completed by Nebuchadnezzar II. He sacked Samaria 
in 595 BCE three years after he sacked Jerusalem.

Clearly, the usual Bible chronology simply will not fit by the numbers. 
Jehu kills Ahab the king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Jerusalem directly 
after each other, but the death of the kings of Israel and Jerusalem do 
not coincide to the same year in the conventional chronology. Kings of 
Jerusalem when counted out give Uzziah's death (710 BCE) at 5 years after 
the death of Ahaz (715 BCE), which is a clear impossibility and a sure 
artificial construct. Once Joash son of Joahaz is placed in his proper 
century there is no Joash of Israel to beat Amaziah. Switching Joram with 
his twelve years and Joash with his generation (40) rule puts the story 
into concert with the known history. Taking the doubles out places the 
end of Joash at 776 BCE and the end of Uzziah at 741 BCE, which are 
correct placements. In order to reconcile the death of Ahaziah king of 
Jerusalem in 834 BCE after an eight year reign to the beginning of Jehu's 
reign the whole structure of Israel kings is shifted 4 years from the 
death of Solomon to the fifth year of Rehoboam and the 40 year reign of 
Joash is shorten by 4 years to 36, which is acceptable with the rules 
governing what the length a Hebrew generation could represent (35-40 
years). When the reign lengths of Ahab and Jehu are switched, the 
chronology is reconciled to their proper placements. 


Part three


The traditional placements of the first year of Jotham (747 BCE) to the 
first of Cyrus (II) the Great (576 BCE) are exact, but one of the reign 
lengths is not. The system used compensated by increasing Manasseh's 
reign by 20 years from 35 to 55. By adding a fictitious king Amon, the 
name of an Egyptian god, increased the length 2 years for a total of 22 
additional years to bridge the points from the destruction of Jerusalem 
(598 BCE) to the first of Cyrus (II) the Great (576 BCE). The death of 
Josiah marks the year of the fall of Assyria (620 BCE). Nabopolassar 
ruled for 29 years, but after his victory over Assyria began numbering 
his years anew. Nabopolassar died in his 22nd year after the fall of 
Assyria at Haran, which was after the fall of Jerusalem in the 19th year 
of Nebuchadnezzar II as commander of the army and his 25th year as king 
of Babylon. Josephus gives the Persian Empire 246 1/2 years from the 
first year of Cyrus (II) the Great in 576 BCE to the conquest of Persia 
by Alexander (III) the Great in 330 BCE.


Conventional Bible chronology

   BCE                     Reign       BCE                      Reign

   928   Rehoboam           17         928   Jehoboam            22
   911   Abia                3         906   Nadab                2
   908   Asa                41         904   Baasha              24
   867   Jehoshaphat        25         880   Elah                 2
   842   Joram               8         878   Omri                12
   834   Ahaziah             1         866   Ahab                22
   833   Athaliah            2         844   Ahaziah              2
   831   Joash              40         842   Joram               12
   791   Amaziah            29         830   Jehu                28
   762   Uzziah             52         802   Joahaz              17
                                       785   Joash               16
   747   Jotham             16         769   Jeroboam II         41
   731   Ahaz               16         728   Zachariah + Shallum
   715   Hezekiah           29               Menahem             10
   686   Manasseh           55         718   Pekahiah             2
   631   Amon                2         716   Pekah               20
   629   Josiah             31         696   Hoshea               9
   598   Jehoahaz  3 M 10 d            687   Ten tribes dispersed
         Jehoiakim          11
   587   Jehoiachin  3 months
         Zedechiah          11
   576   First of Cyrus II 246
   330   Alexander the Great


      KJH chronology

   928   Rehoboam          17          924   Jeroboam            22
   911   Abia               3          902   Nadab                2
   908   Asa               41          900   Baasha              24
   867   Jehoshaphat       25          876   Elah                 2
                                       874   Omri                12
   842   Ahaziah            8          862   Ahab                28
   834   Joram             12          834   Jehu                22
   822   Amaziah           14 29       812   Joash               36 40
   808   Joash             32
   776   Uzziah            35 52       776   Azariah             28

   747   Jotham            16          748   Pekah               25
   731   Ahaz              16          723   Menahem             12 Azia
   715   Hezekiah Regency  15          711   Joahaz              17
   700   Hezekiah          14 29       694   Joash II            16
   686   Manasseh          35 55+2     678   Jeroboam II         41
   651   Josiah            31          637   Zachariah + Shallum  1
   620   Jehoahaz      3m              636   Menahem II          10
         Jehoiakim         11          626   Pekahiah             2
   609   Jehoiachin    3m              624   Pekah II            20
         Zedechiah         11          604   Hoshea               9
   598   Sack of Jerusalem             595   Sack of Samaria


Now that Bible chronology has been corrected the contemporary kings of 
other nations can be placed next to them.


Larger frames in chronology are 3398 BCE worldwide for the start of 
`kings of men and not gods'. The only exceptions that I am aware of being 
Indic, China, and ancient Persian lists that extend back further. The 
Egyptian and Chaldean date of the flood being 36,358 BCE (25 X 1460 = 
36,500), which cycle ended in 143 CE the 2nd year of Antoninus Pius. 

After the 3761 BCE event that created a new calendar, era, and a new 
victorian 25 year cycle that was begun the next year with a new spring 
equinox date so Sothic counts begin in 85, 60, 35, and 10 year date 
endings for these centuries BCE. The 7th year of Sesostris III was 1860 
BCE for the Sothis cycle. The 34th year of Sesostris III (1833 BCE) was 
at the end of his 9 year war when Argos was taken 393 years from the 
exodus, which was the same year that Jacob died at age 147 years. 

Cambyses II conquered Egypt in his 5th year in 525 BCE, which is the date 
of the Royal Canon of Ptolemy. The second book of Excerpta Latina Barbari 
gives the period between that and the start of the Middle Kingdom to be 
1420 years or 2045 BCE in the reign of Mentuhotpe II (14th year). The 
25th Sothic cycle 1318 BCE was the era of Menophreus (Menoffire Ai). The 
24th Sothic cycle 2778 BCE occurred in the 6th year of Concharis a king 
of the lower kingdom of the double crown of Egypt. Mestraim was put at 
the 22nd Sothic cycle (5698 BCE) for the first book of Manetho at 2300 
years duration ending at 3398 BCE the actual start. Mene united upper and 
lower Eygpt in the 363th year of the Mestraim era or 3036 BCE a year 
after the start of the war to unite Egpypt. The first Egyptian dynasty 
began in 3053 BCE after the Ten Kings Period and 955 years elapsed from 
the 1st to the end of the 8th dynasty. Traditionaly the end of the 3rd 
and start of the 4th dynasty occurred in 2550 BCE and Tanutamon ended his 
reign in the year 1450 BCE when Moses was 80 years old. Moses was born 3 
months before the flood of Ogyges, which flood occurred on the 31st day 
of October 1530 BCE. The start of a new period of foreign control of 
Egypt began in 1529 BCE February, which lasted for 511 years (Manetho) 
until the New Kingdom began in 1018 BCE. The Shepherd Kings started 
ruling Eygpt in 1440 BCE after the Exodus for 453 years until 987 BCE 
when Joab the head of King David's army captured the last of the 
Amalekite cities. 

Necho II killed Josiah, as he was going to war, when the Assyrians at 
Harran fell and was no more as a nation in 620 BCE July 24th (Abu 12). 


The Babylonian Chronicle 


The synchronization of the Babylonian Chronicle is established by 
documented formula and synchronicities with other kings. Documents state 
the 1st year of Marduk-nadin-addhe was 418 years before Sennacherib. A 
second sync was that the 10th year of Marduk-nadin-addhe was the 1st year 
of Tiglath-pileser I or 1099 BCE. The Babylonian Chronicle has the 
Kassite dynasty ruling for 576 3/4 years starting at 1744 BCE, Isin II 
1167 BCE, Sealand II 1035 BCE, Bazi 1014 BCE, Elamite dynasty 994 BCE, 
and 8th dynasty of Babylon at 988 BCE. However, single kingship in 
Babylon did not rule its diverse population and political realities for 
the last three centuries of the 8th Babylonian dynasty from the 9th 
century BCE to near the end of the 7th century BCE. Double and triple 
kingships became the political norm for Babylon, which only ended Kassite 
co-rulerships in 622 BCE March 13th after the sack of Nineveh. The 
correct start of the Kassite dynasty was 576 years and 9 months previous 
from that point or mid year 1199 BCE (June 8). This date is already noted 
for its catastrophic importance all over the world. Moreover, the resyns 
of the Babylonian Chronicle to an earlier period by 545 years is fully in 
line with Velikovsky's 5 1/2 century down dating of Egypts New Kingdom.

Co-kingships of Babylon started with Kassite king rulers at the start of 
the ninth century BCE. Triple co-rulers began with dynasty Isin II in 
776 BCE, which was succeeded by dynasty Sealand II. Dynasty Bazi began a 
fourth co-rulership as it was contemporaneous with Sealand II. An Elamite 
dynasty began after the end of 9th Babylonian dynasty. Nabopolassar put 
an end to all other co-kingships in Babylon based on nation factions by 
putting his son Nebuchadnezzar II on the Babylon throne in 622 BCE March. 
By this resynchronization it is plain that the two destructions of 
Babylon by Kashtiliash and Sennacherib are the same event. A complete 
list of the kings and reigns would prove that the synchronizations in the 
Chronicle are off by the actual records and inscriptions, which is why 
the Babylon king list (8th dynasty) and Kassite dynastic list made 
purposeful omissions of kings and reigns. Fortunately, both dynastic 
lists can be reconstructed by the ancient records and documents once the 
Assur dynastic predating and the false resynchronizations are known. The 
Kassite and Assyrian king lists both added false kings in order to uphold 
the systems' new resynchronization. The Kassite king list added 
Marduk-apal-iddina (II) with 12 years in order to keep the number of 
dynastic kings the same at 36 because Shalmaneser II [III] who had ruled 
Babylon for 14 years was left off the list. Shalmaneser the Great is 
given a reign of 35 years, but the eponym list has 7 years of `revolt' at 
the end of his reign. This translates into 29 years of reign, which 
begins with the last 3 years of his father and 6 additional years added 
to a dead kings reign by document dating. It was not uncommon for scribes 
to add to a dead kings reign when confusion in an empire occurred. The 
Assyrian king list added 2 extra kings, Sargon II and Shalmaneser V, to 
internally match the new resynchronization, but Shalmaneser of Assur 5 
year reign in the list is the actual first 5 years of Sennacherib that 
happens to also be the last 5 years of Sargon II as king of Babylon. The 
Babylonian system also alters its internal synchronization by adding and 
subtracting years to its king reigns totaling a difference of 2 years.


BCE 788  Karakhardash                  1347                                    
         Nazibugash                2           1                               
    787  Kurigalzu II             24   1345   22                               
    763  Nazimaruttash            26   1321   25                               
    738  Kadashman-Turgu          15   1295   18                               
    723  Kadashman-Enlil II        9   1280   15                               
    714  Kudur-Enlil               6   1271    9                               
    708  Shagarakti-Shuriash           1265             

    788 - 708 = 80                     1347 - 1265 = 82                        


The Babylonian system with a false Marduk-apal-iddian (II) with a 12 year 
reign also adds 2 extra years while Shalemaneser II [III] 14 year reign 
is not in the traditional list. The top three (2/1 24/22 26/25) are for 
shifting the list by 2 years while the bottom three (15/18 9/15 6/9) are 
to shift the list by 12 years depending on whether Marduk-apal-iddian (II) 
is added to the list or not. Pushing the Babylonian list to earlier dates 
by 12 years creates a need for the Assyrian list to do the same, which is 
why a false second Assur-nadin-ahhe (II) is added to the Assyrian king 
list for 10 years.


Kassites 36 kings 576 years 9 months

    BCE                                 BCE                                    

   1199  Gandash                  16   1744                                    
   1183  Agum                     22   1728                                    
   1161  Kashtiliash              22   1706                                    
   1139  Ushshi                    8   1684                                    
   1131  Abirattash                4   1676  15                                
   1116  Kashtiliash II            3   1661  10                                
   1106  Urzigurumash              3   1651  10                                
   1096  Harbasipak               14   1641  30                                
   1066  Tiptakzi                 22   1611   5                                
   1044  Agum II                  44   1589  50                                
    994  Burnaburiash             25   1539  45                                
    949  Kashtiliash III          44   1494  30                                
    905  Ulamburiash               7   1450                                    
    898  Agum III                 20   1443     Sack of Babylon 898 BCE        
    878  Kadashmankharbi           5   1423                                    
    873  Kurigalzu                11   1418                                    
    862  Kadashman-Enlil          21   1407                                    
    841  Karaindash               10   1386                                    
    831  Shalmaneser II [III]                14                                
    817  Burnaburiash II          29   1376                                    
    788  Karakhardash                  1347                                    
         Nazibugash                2          1                                
    787  Kurigalzu II             24   1345  22                                
    763  Nazimaruttash            26   1321  25                                
    738  Kadashman-Turgu          15   1295  18                                
    723  Kadashman-Enlil II        9   1277  15                                
    714  Kudur-Enlil               6   1262   9                                
    708  Shagarakti-Shuriash      13   1253                                    
    695  Kashtiliash IV            8   1240                                    
    687  Interregnum               7   1232   Tukulti-Ninurta                  
    680  Enlil-nadin-shumi }                                                   
         Kadashmankharbe II}       3   1225                                    
    677  Adad-shuma-iddina         6   1222                                    
    671  Adad-shuma-usur          30   1216                                    
    641  Meli-shiskhu (Melisipak) 15   1186   [Marduk-apal-iddina II 12]       
    626  Zababa-shuma-iddina       1   1171                                    
    625  Enlil-nadin-akhi          3   1170                                    

Isin II

    776  Marduk-kabit-ahheshu     18   1167  17                                
    759  Itti-Marduk-balatu        8   1149   6                                
    751  Ninurta-nadin-shumi       6   1141                                    
    745  Nebuchadrezzar I         22   1135   Hattusilis II  16th              
    723  Enlil-nadin-apli          4   1113                                    
    719  Marduk-nadin-addhe 10th  18   1109   7th eclipse                      
    701  Marduk-shapik-zeri       13   1091  17                                
    688  Adad-apal-iddina         22   1078                                    
    666  Marduk-ahhe-eriba         1   1056                                    
    665  Marduk-zer-e...          12   1055                                    
    653  Nabu-shumu-libur          8   1043                                    
    645  unknown king              2          Actual but not used in system    

Sealand II

    643  Simbar-sipak             18   1035   12 or 13 years                   
    625  Ea-mukin-zeri           5m    1017                                    
         Kassu-nadin-ahi           3                                           

Bazi

    642  Eulmas-sakin-sumi        17   1014                                    
    625  Ninurta-kudurri-usur      3    997                                    
    622  Sirikti-Suqamuna        3m                                            

Elamite

    634  Mar-biti-apla-usur        6    994                                    


8th Babylonian dynasty

    988  Nabu-mukin-apli          36   Earthquake begins dynasty               
    952  Ninurta-kudurri-usur II 8m                                            
    951  Mar-biti-akhe-iddin      16                                           
    935  Samash-mudammik          14                                           
    921  Nabu-shuma-ukin          25                                           
    896  Nabu-apla-iddin          19                                           
    877  Marduk-bel-usate         18                                           
    859  Marduk-zakir-shumi       27                                           
    832  Marduk-balatsu-ikbi      24                                           
    808  Bau-akh-iddin            22                                           
         5 unknown kings           9                                           
    799  Ninurta-apla-x           23                                           
         Adad-shum-ibni           29                                           
         Marduk-bel-zeri          17                                           
    781  Marduk-apla-usur         22                                           
    779  Eriba-Marduk             19                                           
    760  Nabu-shuma-iskun         13                                           
    747  Nabu-nasir               14   Era of Nabonassar                       
    733  Nabu-nadin-zeri           2                                           
    731  Nabu-suma-ukin II      1m                                             

9th dynasty

    731  Nabu-mukin-zeri           2   3rd year 729 BCE Pul takes Babylon 
    729  Marduk-apla-iddina I     12   Merodach-Baladan 
    717  Ululayu                   5   Ululayu = Shalmaneser 
    712  First kingless period     2   
    710  Sargon II                 5   
         Bel-ibni                  3       
    707  Markuk-zakir-sumi II  1 m      
         Marduk-apla-iddina I  9 m     2nd time 22nd year                      
    706  Assur-nadin-sumi          6      
    700  Nergal-usezib             1      
    699  Musezib-Marduk            4      
    695  Second kingless period    8   Sennacherib 
    687  Esarhaddon               11   Babylon destroyed                       
    676  Samas-sum-ukin           20 
    656  Kandalanu                22     


Elamite

    634  Mar-biti-apla-usur        6                                           

Lydian

    628  Nabopolassar             29   Mursilis II                             
    622  Nebuchadnezzar II        43   Hattusilis III                          
    620  Nabopolassar             21   Era of Nabopolassar                     
    599  Neriglissar               7   Muwatallis                              
    592  Labasi-Marduk           9m    Urhi-Tesup                              
    591  Nebuchadnezzar II        12   Hattusilis III                          
    579  Amel-Merodach             2   Tudhalis III                            
    577  Neriglissar II            4   Arnuwandas III                          
    573  Nabonidus                17   Suppliluliumas III                      

Persia

    556  Cyrus II                  9                                           



All dynasties use only traditional lists and reigns. Only the Babylonian 
9th dynasty and Nabopolassar's dynasty have been altered. However, the 
start of both the 8th and 9th dynasties are known quantities and sure. 
The reason for the significant changes in the 9th dynasty is that the 
Royal Canon of Ptolemy was created to down date the Persian Empire from 
its traditional and correct length of 246 1/2 years to only 229 year or 
17 years less, which requires an additional 17 years elsewhere. However, 
the resync of Assyrian kings down dating by 6 years eliminates the need 
of a second appearance of the Elamite king Mar-biti-apla-usur and his 6 
year reign at his actual placement between the end of the 9th dynasty 
and the start of the reign of Nabopolassar. However, Esarhaddon's rule in 
Ptolemy's list is 7 years closer to our time and gives him a reign of 13 
years or 2 years more than his actual 11 years. This makes the start of 
Nabopolassar reign in 628 BCE to be resynced 3 years to 625 BCE. The 
actual start of Nabopolassar son Nebuchadnezzar II reign is 622 BCE in 
Babylon, which is moved to 604 BCE or one eclipse cycle late. The total 
reign of Nabopolassar is 29 years. However, when his given reign of 21 
years after the fall of Assyria subtracts a full 18 year eclipse period, 
it makes the separation from the resynced start (625 BCE) to the actual 
start of his son's reign only 3 years and 21 from his given placement. 
Moreover, this shift keeps the eclipse cycles in the records in line 
and in harmony with the other records, even if they are placed one cycle 
late. 



    988 BCE Nabu-mukin-apli - omens & earthquake                               
    868 BCE Nabu-apal-iddina - confusion in Babylon                            
    747 BCE Era of Nabonassar - Assur-dan III 10th year plague                 
    687 BCE Babylon destroyed                                                  
    656 BCE Kandalanu start 
    625 BCE Simbar-sipak - Fire in sky (Simba-Sihu)                
    624 BCE Assur sacked                                                       
    622 BCE March (13th) Nineveh sacked and Nebuchadnezzar II reigns in Babylon 
    620 BCE Era of Nabopolassar - Sack of Harran Abu 12 fall of Assyrian Empire 
    617 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II as commander of the army of Chaldea              
    598 BCE July 2nd Jerusalem sacked in the 21st year of Nabopolassar New Era 
            and the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar II as army commander 
    576 BCE Era of Cyrus (II) the Great 
    556 BCE 1st year of Cyrus II in the city of Babylon                        



The Assyrian king list was increased and resynchronized to match the 
elongated chronological system of the Babylonian Chronicle by inserting a 
late contemporary dynasty (Enlil-nasir II) inbetween two earlier 
dynasties that were stacked one on top of the other. The late dynasty 
came from the city of Assur and was inserted at the end of the early 
Assur dynasty started by Samis-Adad II. This positioned itself before the 
early Calah dynasty started by Ninurta-apil-Ekur. Assyria had more than 
one line of royal kings during different periods of its dominance as did 
many kingdoms. The Bible states that king Ahaz requested aid from the 
kings (plural) of Assyria (Chron II 28:16). In year 32 of Hammurabi a new 
Assyrian dynasty by Assur-dugul began ending 121 years later. Then 
another dynasty reigned for 113 plus years (14). The late Assur dynasty 
insertion after the end of Assur-nadin-ahhe I reign does not alter the 
year the dynasty founded by Ninurta-apil-Ekur (1167 BCE) began. In the 
Babylon Chronicle the Kassite dynasty ends at 1167 BCE. This is not a 
coincidence, but the determinator of the resynchronizations for both 
systems. Another insertion in the Assyrian king list occurs when 
Tiglath-pileser III and his `son' Shalmaneser V (5 years) of Calah were 
added. However, Shalmaneser I of Assur was a comtemporary of 
Tiglath-pileser III and not his son. Sargon II and Shalmaneser I add a 
total of 22 additional years inserted into the Assyrian king list. 
However, the list was resynced to a date 6 years late resulting in early 
dating by 16 years for the conventional chronology. In Assyrian documents 
there is only a single empty line before king Sennacherib where 3 kings 
are now put:  "There are insufficient lines to put in all the kings 
between Shalmaneser III and Sennacherib" [1], which only leaves space for 
Tiglath-pileser III. Tiglath-pileser III was only a general in the 
Assyrian army who later came into kingship because the Medes managed to 
kill all the Assyrian royal family lines at one place in 731 BCE, which 
is the same year that the 9th dynasty of Babylon began. In the 3rd year 
of Nabu-mukin-zeri Tiglath-pileser III conquered Babylon, which gave him 
a Babylonian name (Pul) and right of kingship. Since 2 years of 
interregnum exist between the end of the Assyrian royal king lines and 
Tiglath-pileser III in Babylon, the difference of 14 years (16-2) is the 
number of eponmys Sargon II has despite his known 17 year reign. The 14 
years also represent at the other end the total reign lengths for the two 
last kings with missing reign numbers from the 2nd Assyrian dynasty after 
the king line was reestablished during the reign of Hammurabi. The reign 
lengths of these two kings at a total of 14 years were purposefully left 
off the king list in order to allow shifting within the artificial 
elongated chronological systems being utilized. The total for both kings 
at 14 years is also independently confirmed by both T and V cycles.

In the third year of Nabu-mukin-zeri, Tiglath-pileser III took Babylon, 
then appointed Marduk-apla-iddina I who ruled Babylon for 12 years. A 
second king by this name in the list also ruled, but he in fact was the 
same king who ruled for an additional 9 months after revolting from 
Assyrian rule in his 22nd year ending in 706 BCE. From this point it 
continues for 6 years with Assur-nadin-sumi, a year with Nergal-usezib, 4 
years with Musezib-Marduk, a period of 8 years with no appointed kings, 
Esarhaddon starting from the death of his father Sennacherib in 687 BCE 
for 11 years, Samas-sum-ukin 20 years, Kandalanu 22 years, 
Mar-biti-apla-usur of Elam 6 years, and then Nabopolassar for 29 years 
(628 BCE), which cross connects to other known working chronological 
systems (see index 1 proof 6). A correctly synchronized Assyrian king 
list calculates a mid 15th century BCE start (1446 BCE) for the reign of 
Hammurabi. 




Synchronicity:

Bel-bani                   Iskibal                                             
Lubaia                     Susi                                                
Sarma-adad                 Gulkisar                                            
Bazaia                     Pesgaldaramas                                       
Lulla                      Aiadarakalamma                                      
Sininua                    Ekurulanna                                          
Sama-Adad                  Melamkurra                                          
Isme-dagan                 Burnaburiash                                        
Samsi-adad                 Burnaburiash                                        
                           Kastilau                                            
                           Ulamburiar                                          
Assur-bel-nisesu           Karaindash           Treaty                         
Puzur-Assur                Burnaburiash II      oath                           
Assur-uballit              Karahardash                                         
                           Nazibugas                                           
                           Kurigalzu II                                        
Ellil-nirari               Kurigalzu II                                        
Adad-nirari                Nazimarrutash                                       
                           Kadashman-Turgu                                     
                           Ka-ta-as-ma-du-ur-go                                
Ninurta-apil-e[kur]        Ellil-kudur-usur                                    
[Ass]ur-dan                Zababa-suma-iddina                                  
Assur-resa-isi             Nebuchadnezzar                                      
Tiglath-pileser            Markuk-nadin-ahhe                                   
Assur-bel-kala             Markuk-sapik-zeri                                   
                           Adad-apla-iddina                                    
Adad-nirari                Shamash-mudammiq                                    
                           Nabu-suma-iskun                                     
Tukulti-nasir-pal II       Nabu-suma-iskun                                     
Assur-nasir-pal            Nabu-apla-iddina                                    
Shalmaneser                Nabu-apla-iddina                                    
                           Marduk-zakir-sumi                                   
                           Marduk-bel-usate     defeated                       
Tukulti-ninurta            Kashtiliash                                         
                           Adad-suma-user                                      
Ashur-nirari               Adad-suma-user                                      
Shamashi-Adad              Marduk-balatsu-iqbi                                 
                           Baba-aha-iddina                                     



Assyrian kings                       conventional chronology             

   1629  Erisum                 40   1894  Erisum                 40           
   1589  Ikunum                 14   1854  Ikunum                 14           
   1575  Sharru-kin             40   1840  Sharru-kin             40           
   1535  Naram-Suen             27   1800  Naram-Suen             27           
   1508  Erisum II              20   1773  Erisum II              20           
   1488  Samsi-Adad             33   1753  Samsi-Adad             33           
   1455  Isme-Dagan             40   1720  Isme-Dagan             40           

   1415  Assur-dugul             6   1680  Assur-dugul             6           
   1410  Assur-apal-idi          1   1675  Assur-apal-idi          1           
         Nasir-Sin                         Nasir-Sin                           
         Sin-namir                         Sin-namir                           
         Ipqi-Istar                        Ipqi-Istar                          
         Adad-salulu                       Adad-salulu                         
         Adasi                             Adasi                               
   1409  Belu-bani              10   1674  Belu-bani              10           
   1399  Libaja                 17   1664  Libaja                 17           
   1382  Sarma-Adad             12   1647  Sarma-Adad             12           
   1370  Iptar-Sin              12   1635  Iptar-Sin              12           
   1358  Bazaja                 28   1623  Bazaja                 28           
   1330  Lullaja                 6   1595  Lullaja                 6           
   1324  Kidin-Ninua            14   1589  Kidin-Ninua            14           
   1310  Sarma-Adad II           3   1575  Sarma-Adad II           3           
   1307  Erisum III             13   1572  Erisum III             13           

   1294  Samsi-Adad II           6   1559  Samsi-Adad II           6           
   1288  Isme-Dagan II          16   1553  Isme-Dagan II          16           
   1272  Samsi-Adad III         16   1537  Samsi-Adad III         16           
   1256  Assur-nirari           26   1521  Assur-nirari           26           
   1230  Puzur-Assur III        24   1495  Puzur-Assur III        24           
   1206  Enlil-nasir            13   1471  Enlil-nasir            13           
   1193  Nur-ili                12   1458  Nur-ili                12           
   1181  Assur-saduni    1 month           Assur-saduni    1 month             
         Assur-rabi            }     1446  Assur-rabi            }             
   1177  Assur-nadin-ahhe      }14         Assur-nadin-ahhe      }14           

                                     1432  Enlil-nasir II          6           
                                     1426  Assur-nirari II         7           
                                     1419  Assur-bel-nisesu        9           
                                     1410  Assur-rim-nisesu       12           
                                     1398  [Assur-nadin-ahhe II]  10           
                                     1388  Eriba-Adad             27           
                                     1361  Assur-uballit          39           
                                     1322  Enlil-nirari           15           
                                     1307  Arik-den-ili           12           
                                     1295  Adad-nirari            32           
                                     1263  Shalmaneser (I)        30           
                                     1233  Tukulti-Ninurta        37           
                                     1196  Assur-nadin-apli        4           
                                     1192  Assur-nirari III        6           
                                     1186  Enlil-kudurri-usur      5           

   1167  Ninurta-apil-Ekur      13   1181  Ninurta-apil-Ekur      13  3        
   1154  Assur-dan              36   1168  Assur-dan              36 46        
   1118  Ninurta-tukulti-Assur       1132  Ninurta-tukulti-Assur               
         Mutakkil-Nusku          1         Mutakkil-Nusku          1           
   1117  Assur-res-isi          18   1131  Assur-res-isi          18           
   1099  Tiglath-Pileser        39   1113  Tiglath-Pileser        39           
   1060  Asarid-apil-Ekur        2   1074  Asarid-apil-Ekur        2           
   1058  Assur-bel-kala         18   1072  Assur-bel-kala         18           
   1040  Eriba-Adad II           2   1054  Eriba-Adad II           2           
   1038  Samsi-Adad IV           4   1052  Samsi-Adad IV           4           
   1034  Assurnasirpal          19   1048  Assurnasirpal          19           
   1015  Shalmaneser I [II]     12   1029  Shalmaneser II         12           
   1003  Assur-nirari II         6   1017  Assur-nirari IV         6           
    997  Assur-rabi II          41   1011  Assur-rabi II          41           
    956  Assur-res-isi II        5    970  Assur-res-isi II        5           
    951  Tiglath-Pileser II     32    965  Tiglath-Pileser II     32 33        
    919  Assur-dan II           23    933  Assur-dan II           23           
    896  Adad-nirari I          21    910  Adad-nirari I          21 20        
    875  Tukulti-Ninurta I [II]  7    889  Tukulti-Ninurta II      7           
    868  Assurnasirpal II       25    882  Assurnasirpal II       25           
    846  Shalmaneser II [III]   29    857  Shalmaneser III        35           
    817  Arbaces the Mede        1    822  Samsi-Adad V           13           
    816  Semiramis III          24    812  Semiramis III           5           
    810  Samsi-Adad V           13    809  Adad-nirari II         28           
    795  Adad-nirari II         28    781  Shalmaneser IV         10           
    767  Shalmaneser III [IV]   10    771  Assur-dan III          18           
    757  Assur-dan III          18    753  Assur-nirari V          8           
    739  Assur-nirari IV         8    745  Tiglath-Pileser III    19           
    731  Interregnum             2    726  Shalmaneser V           5           
    729  Tiglath-Pileser III    19    721  Sargon II              17           
    710  Sennacherib            23    704  Sennacherib            23           
    687  Esarhaddon             12    681  Esarhaddon             12           
    675  Assurbanipal           42    669  Assurbanipal           42           
    633  Assur-etel-ilani        4    627  Assur-etel-ilani        4           
         Sin-sumu-lisir                    Sin-sumu-lisir
    632  Sin-sar-iskun          10    626  Sin-sar-iskun          10           
    622  Fall of Nineveh              616  Fall of Nineveh                     
    622  Assur-uballit II        2    616  Assur-uballit II        2           
    620  Fall of the Assyrian Empire at Harran 


    888  -                       4 
    884  -Zi-                    9 
    885  -Bel                   13 
    862  Enlil-nasir II          6 
    856  Assur-nirari III        7 
    849  Assur-bel-nisesu        9 
    840  Assur-rim-nisesu        8 
    832  Eriba-Adad             27 
    805  Assur-uballit          36 
    769  Enlil-nirari           10 
    759  Arik-den-ili           12 
    747  Adad-nirari            32    
    717  Shalmaneser IV [V & I] 30    719  Sargon II  14             
    687  Tukulti-Ninurta II [I] 37 
    652  Assur-nadin-apli        4 
    648  Assur-nirari V          6 
    642  Enlil-kudurri-usur     13 
    629  Belkudur-usur           5 
    624  Fall of Assur             


A 1712 BCE start for Hammurabi is given by the ancient elongated system. 
Sydney Smith put Hammurabi at a 1716 BCE start for the short chronology.


Assur-dugul began to reign in Year 32 of Hammurabi 
Assurnasirpal II last three years co-reign with son Shalmaneser II [III]
Semiramis II = Puzur-Assur IV
Semiramis III co-reigned with her son's (Adad-nirari II) first 3 years
Sargon II number of eponyms is 14 
Enlil-kudurri-usur killed Adad-shuma-usur
Assur-etel-ilani and Enlil-kudurri-usur both died in the same battle


Girkishar 696 to Nebuchadrezzar (Alexander)
10th year of Marduk-nadin-akhe [1113 BCE] = 1st year of Tiglathpileser I
Tiglathpileser I 641 years after Shamshi-Adad son of Ishme-Dagan [1754 BCE]
Asshurbanapal 1,635 years after Kudu-nankhund [675 + 1635 = 2310 BCE]
Marduk-nadin-akhe 418 years before Sennacherib [704 + 418 = 1122 BCE]


Hammurabi 700 years before Burnaburiash had built E-barra (600)
Karaindash peace treaty with Asshur-bel-nisheshu
Tukulti-Ninib 600 years before Sennacherib (ruled 6 years after)
Burnaburiash letter to Amenophis III king of Egypt
Asshur-uballit letter to Napkhuriya king of Egypt - Amenophis III
Asshur-uballit - Kara-khardash - Kadashman-Kharbe - Kurigalzu II


Shalmaneser 434 Shamshi-Adad [717 + 434 + 242 = 1493 BCE]
Tukulti-Ninurta 720 Ilushuma (21) [540 end of Shamshi-Adad]
Tiglath-pileser 701 Shamshi-Adad
10th year of [9th] Ashur-Dan III in the month of Siwan an eclipse
Ashur-uballit 135 Puzur-Shur III



It is extremely ironic that after the fall of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (III) 
that the non contemporary dynasties of Isin, Larsa, Babylon I, and 
Sealand were resynchronized as being contemporaneous with each other 
while the actual contemporary dynastic kings of Sealand, Kassite, Babylon 
(8th), Isin II + Sealand II, Bazi, and Elam were falsely resynchronized 
as being non contemporaneous one on top of another. Yet these are the end 
results of the ancient elongated chronological systems used for making 
some of civilizations greatest kings of Babylon, Assyria, and Egypt older 
by 545 years during the second millennium BCE than in fact they were. In 
the present conventional system there are two peak developments in 
administrative record keeping with a hiatus of around 6 centuries 
inbetween them where all writing developments were completely lost. With 
the correct placements there is only one peak development in the 8th 
century BCE and no unnatural loss of record keeping abilities by all the 
surrounding cultures.


  1   Eric Aitchison, C&CR, 1998:1, Assyrian History:  The `Black Hole',       
      page 26, 3rd concession - last sentence.                                 


In the 6th (9th) year of Shalmaneser II [III] (838 BCE) his army fought a 
coalition that included the king of Judah, which the Moab stela stated 
was the mid reign of that king. Since that event was 4 years after 
Jehoshaphat died, Ahaziah's reign was 8 years and the year that Jehu 
began his reign after killing Ahab and Ahaziah was 834 BCE. 


The story is that Sennacherib died (687 BCE) before the end of Hezekiah's 
reign (686 BCE), which agrees with the sync for the fall of Harran and 
the Assyrian nation in 620 BCE. 

The extended Assyrian chronology used king Shalmaneser of the 
contemporary Assyrian dynasty of the 9th to 7th centuries BCE for the 
first Shalmaneser, which in fact was the last Shalmaneser with a 30 year 
reign who died in the same year as Sennacherib in 687 BCE. All the 
Assyrian royal lines were killed by the Medes in 731 BCE, which started 
the 9th Babylonian dynasty. After a 2 year interregnum an Assyrian 
general Tigath-pileser III took Babylon. The period of Tiglath-pileser 
III 19 years, Shalmaneser 30 years, Sargon II 17 years, and Sennacherib 
23 years are boxed between 729 - 687 BCE according to the canons the 
ancients gave us. Sargon II ruled for 17 years as king of Assyria at his 
capital Dur-Sharruken, but he only has 14 eponyms in the list. In Sargon 
II last 5 years he was designated king of Babylon. These 5 years are the 
same years designated as the reign of Shalmaneser of Assur 5 year rule in 
the list, but they actually represent the first 5 years of the reign of 
Sennacherib. 


Now that all the major king lists have been synchronized we can write 
history correctly. Moreover, there are natural cycles indicated in the 
corrected chronology king lists of 6 T cycles per 181 years and 32 V 
cycles per 1001 years. 


Visit Chronology One blog page.


Send e-mail to: James Conway
bb089@scn.org


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